292 0 obj <>stream One limitation of biogeographic studies of S. alterniflora within the native range is a lack of knowledge of geographic variation in reproductive biology. ), N.S., P.E.I., Que., Maine, Md., Mass., Oreg. 10 Spartina alterniflora is found on muddy banks, usually of the intertidal zone, in eastern North and South America, but it is not known from Central America. Glumes straight, sides usually glabrous, sometimes pilose near the base or appressed pubescent, hairs to 0.3 mm; lower glumes 4-10 mm, acute; upper glumes 8-14 mm, keels glabrous, lateral veins not present, apices acuminate to obtuse, occasionally apiculate; lemmas glabrous or sparsely pilose, apices usually acuminate; paleas slightly exceeding the lemmas, thin, papery, apices obtuse or rounded; anthers 3-6 mm. Download with Google Download with Facebook. For an availability please contact us by phone or e-mail. This narrow band stretches for approximately 0.25 miles. Copyright for Volumes 24 and 25 is held by Utah State University. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Create a free account to download. 2004). 2. 3. It thrives in mucky soil in full sun. Exotic Spartina alterniflora has become widely distributed along most of the coastlines in China in a wide range of inundation frequencies. Spartina alterniflora . It grows in low-lying, salt and brackish tidal marshes along the shores of the middle and lower Chesapeake Bay. In addition, it has become established on the west coast of North America, and in England and southeastern France. The velocity zone, where 3 foot waves are expected in storms, is seaward of the MHW as shown on the plan. BASIONYM: Spartina glabra Muhlenberg ex Elliott 1816; Dactylis maritima Walter 1788, non Curtis 1787. Spartina alterniflora is found on muddy banks, usually of the intertidal zone, in eastern North and South America, but it is not known from Central America. 2n = 62. In its native range, decomposed smooth cordgrass provides an important source of food for crabs and other invertebrates and cordgrass marshes are nursery grounds for juvenile fishes and blue crabs. The microcosm has a 38-cm spring tide range, with a neap to spring high tide difference of 9cm. 0000001276 00000 n 0000010661 00000 n Figure 1. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. Expanding trade with China creates ecological backlash. List of Figures . SPECIES: Spartina alterniflora GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Smooth cordgrass is found along the eastern seaboard of North America from Newfoundland and Quebec to northern Florida, and in the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to southern Texas [ 24 , 27 ]. Flowering panicle made of many spikes, The rhizomes and scales of S. alterniflora have large air spaces, presumably an adaptation to the anaerobic soils of its usual habitat. Exposure to salt water is not a requirement for this species, but it will help produce healthier and longer living colonies. Smooth cordgrass spreads rapidly by rhizomatous roots. The native range of S.alterniflora, from Mexico in the Gulf of Mexico to Nova Scotia in North America, has a broad spectrum of abiotic conditions of temperature, growing degree GREAT ISLAND, WELLFLEET . 0000006522 00000 n We sampled vegetative and reproductive traits in the field at 20 sites over 20° latitude in China (invasive range) and 28 sites over 17° in … • endstream endobj 291 0 obj <>/Size 264/Type/XRef>>stream This paper. It is native to the eastern United States, but is considered invasive, in salt marshes, in … Among invasive species, aquatic plants pose serious threats to local biodiversity and ecosystem functions. x�b```b``�a`e`��� �� @16� +ux�x�xbrdf6 5t Spartina alterniflora was introduced to the Yancheng coastal intertidal zone in 1979 (Xu et al., 1989), and a continuous area of S. alterniflora has formed since 2000. Locations of drift card release sites … • Soil pH and salinity were the shaping factors in the fungal community structure. Smooth cordgrass spreads rapidly by rhizomatous roots. conditions, but generally will range from 24” to 72.” Colonies tend to grow parallel to and continuous along shorelines; the width and thickness of a vegetative colony is controlled by a number of site-specific conditions such as elevation, shoreline-slope, and frequency, depth, and duration of flooding. Panicles 10-40 cm, with 3-25 branches, often partially enclosed in the uppermost sheath; branches 5-15 cm, loosely appressed, not twisted, more or less equally subremote to moderately imbricate throughout the panicle, axes often prolonged beyond the distal spikelets, with 10-30 spikelets. Biological control using other natural enemy species from the native range of smooth cordgrass is an unlikely option in California because of the presence of the native California cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) which would also be impacted. alterniflora across the native range (Blum et al. <<5BBFF29AB3E31543A76073B1C2D79928>]>> 0000007319 00000 n Status Stable Smooth cordgrass is a native perennial grass with flat, blade-like leaves. endstream endobj 265 0 obj <>/Outlines 26 0 R/Metadata 55 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 54 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/OCProperties<>/OCGs[266 0 R]>>/StructTreeRoot 57 0 R/Type/Catalog/LastModified(D:20080703103602)/PageLabels 52 0 R>> endobj 266 0 obj <. 2004, Travis et al. Download Full PDF Package. It out-competes many of the native species in these habitats and frequently invades mud flats and channels, converting them to marshlands. 0000009838 00000 n • The fungal co-occurrence network was simplified with the invasion. trailer Plants rhizomatous; rhizomes elongate, flaccid, white, scales inflated, not or only slightly imbricate. 0000005386 00000 n Pure S. alterniflora grows within the lower elevational marsh zones in its native range but, in San Francisco Bay, its hybrids with S. foliosa grow both below and above the range of that species. Figure 4. Spikelets 8-14 mm, straight, usually divergent, more or less equally imbricate on all the branches. 0000003766 00000 n (Labr. We examined trait differences and evolution across geographic clines among continents of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora within its invasive and native ranges. 0000004635 00000 n Additionally, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation service describes S. alternifloraas a grass with long hollow rhizomes. Spartina alterniflora var. S. alterniflora is a rhizomatous perennial grass that grows initially in round, genetically similar, clumps ranging between 0.5-3m in height, eventually forming extensive monoculture meadows. Spartina alterniflora commonly known as smooth cord grass is a species that inhabits marsh habitat in its native range, where introduced It is known to establish itself in wave-protected mud and sand flats and grow very quickly into dense impenetrable stands. S. alterniflora was established in the upper half of the neap range and S. patens in … Spartina alterniflora is the dominant grass species found in coastal wetlands and along tidal shorelines of the eastern US. Spartina alterniflora which is identified on the plan as salt marsh. 0000005129 00000 n At Elders Point East the S. alterniflora upper limit and lower limit of the growth range in relation to Mean High Water (MHW) were 0.45 m and -0.32 m, respectively (Growth range … x�bb2d`b``Ń3� �� ��� Together, our results suggested that tall- and short-form S. alterniflora can host their specific rhizosphere microbial communities and had different strategies of N usage via selecting the composition of rhizosphere bacterial assemblages, which in turn might determine the growth and invasiveness of S. alterniflora in its introduced range. Culms (stems): Stems range in height from 60-250 cm (30-120 cm S. foliosa). 0000001788 00000 n Culms are 7-12 mm wide at the base. %PDF-1.4 %���� 264 29 0000012223 00000 n Science 306:968-969, https://bitbucket.org/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation/src/2e0870ddd59836b60bcf96646a41e87ea5a5943a/coarse grained fna xml/V25/V25 854.xml, Copyright is held by the Flora of North America Association for all volumes except Volumes 24 and 25 (Poaceae). 0000005609 00000 n or. 0000003336 00000 n ,l0\t8��tICCơ6��=8�z4�\�ڌ$�79��F�_q ���YI�HB)c���EG�=@���ȟ�%�X,����h�:A(BX�P!�����X�7�0]`S���`��4#dǵˌ�+,x/,�r�mPgx�x�y�_��pC ��R��o��8� m��hk� [ 6d`ԝ���W���֖1^��$ ς��� �f� � )AN A patch of Spartina alterniflora stubble at Middle Meadow. 0000005687 00000 n 0000011514 00000 n Inflorescence: 10-40 cm long (9-25 cm S. foliosa) with dense colorless flowers. • The fungal community became more homogenized with the invasion. Chinese mangrove ecosystems are vulnerable to the invasive species Spartina alterniflora (a perennial herb), which is native to North America and was introduced to China in 1979 to accelerate the deposition and stabilization of tidal flats [].In the past few decades, Spartina alterniflora has become one of the dominant species in the coastal wetlands in China due to its unique … By 2017, the width of S. alterniflora was 1.88 km, the length was 12.90 km and the area was 3,925 ha. 0000004879 00000 n 0000000892 00000 n 1916. It thrives in mucky soil in full sun. In addition, it has become established on the west coast of North America, and in England and southeastern France. glabra Spartina alterniflora Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, var. The leaves lack auricles and have ligules (1-2 mm) that consist of a fringe of hairs. This indicates that tidal range has been increasing within the bay at the same rate with sea-leave rise (3.9 mm yr-1) since 2007. 0000000016 00000 n 0000025563 00000 n %%EOF In the native range of the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflorain the United States, soil nematode genus richness and diversity decreased with increasing latitude, with genus richness at lower latitudes being almost twice that at higher latitudes. THE GUT, WELLFLEET . Atlantic cordgrass. The leaf blades are 3 to 25 mm wide. 0000047827 00000 n glabra (Muhlenberg ex Elliott) Fernald, Rhodora 18: 178. The stems are hollow and hairless. Geographic subdivisions for Spartina alterniflora: CCo (San Francisco Bay) MAP CONTROLS 1. xref 2007; Hughes 2014), consistent with local adaptation. 0000008900 00000 n When introduced this species can have a negative effect on native species including some endangered. Culms to 250 cm tall, (0.3)5-15(20) mm thick, erect, solitary or in small clumps, succulent, glabrous, having an unpleasant, sulphurous odor when fresh. (Poaceae), native to the eastern United States, was introduced unintentionally into Japan (Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures) at around 2010. Leaf sheaths of S. alterniflora and hybrids may be various shades of maroon at the base of the culms (white-green of S. foliosa). Normile, D. 2004. S. alterniflora rhizome fragment survival over time for Willapa Bay plants.....5 Figure 2. S. alterniflora pollen has a relatively limited range (1 to 3 m), and the reproductive stems produce small seeds (2 to 5 mm) that are dispersed via the tides (Davis et al. Zhenming Ge. Exposure to salt water is not a requirement for this species, but it will help produce healthier and longer living colonies. Spartina alterniflora is now a major weed problem in southeastern China (Normile 2004). Delmarva Native Plants primarily grows Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass), Spartina patens (salt meadow hay), and Distichlis spicata (spike grass) in 2″ plugs. The tide on the Maine coast where samples were collected has a spring range of about 12 feet. Spartina alterniflora is the dominant grass species found in coastal wetlands and along tidal shorelines of the eastern US.

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