�y��x��u�S����׋�]�Ɍ���_\f2���u��9��������l'�砑����vC��~�Nj�Ԑ���iG��� ��_�n��!h6�^����?�~p�搥��[�Gž��j�����`=����x)�#m���&S���������/�� �% =���t�ߍ:���]�|J��4���;e��e�6��|�d���8�U��+w?�_5�����:�N�}LZ������%�#mKgy��r`�Wژ��D�.�J�m�# ��6��͓ID��z�.�q��@�Q���WJ�q��.�('��&N�y$��ژ�s���)��ֵ��}z�x{�����~�:-�@z��ȹ|��B` �!�ݚ�Eڂb1�\��Z���ps�����,~�g���{��IQ�.�8��{��pr\Yx�[!��N#��N�����o�&\�Z`�NrTN�Ʉ�����)>Z99��c��u�$���]w��0$���Z���ژnv���'���\yY~$`�����RCE����t"��q���Q��I����K�>���8 x��][o�H�~���Gr��oA ��$9�,f���� K��3����d~�VU_ؼ�%� ��f�YU]��ե���q{�Z?Foޜ�?>��w�&���j�/��ϫ��n�����>>]?b��5�M�.�����_����ՌGYT�ϲ�Qۼ|��_���W/_��c\��y��A�,bQ�ӌ�Q)����x���n0ZtK�*������Q���Ǘ/��X�b���)z��et�a�b��������~�x2�e*�⒘�����w��1Y��m��2n�}{%2��K���t�[�n�Q�ƾ,^'�놇D��^}��WI�_����:�'y��m;eu�p���ح|��5�>)㛄����$c�4"y"�ΓE_C/�� However, 4 0 obj Traditional African religion is a way of life in which ancestors are part and parcel of every major or minor event such as wedding, births and deaths as well as fetching firewood. The traditional African understanding and the interpretation of Christianity have deep roots in these fundamental beliefs of the African traditional religions. African identity and culture are preserved in African Traditional Religion. 9�2��#�Lf�R�sNwԬ��vҬ�0;aD�a��(��-{�pSkD�:w9t�!�M1̀ s��)�Ű!�!�O��J�a��"���0Ɯ�p>�)����a&L��DA�L�� =H�eP+g �T���m��0Δ�`-���`X+Z�&E0"Vo�I��Ma�T���fs'��gr�j�i� K�]/>�Ĭ��W�`Kȕ�{�䊨�4{��:�}���* The first is that the context of this article is sub-Sahara Africa. Traditional African religion is a way of life in which ancestors are part of every major event such as wedding, births and deaths as well as less important ones such as getting a job and finishing university. Mwali Religion. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society, and so on. John S. Mbiti, in his book Introduction to African Religion (1977: 63-66) argues that, “in African societies sacrifice was very common and that most, involved shedding of blood of a human being or an animal.” He adds that in African societies, life is closely associated with blood. The effect of colonisation on Africa's traditional religion is seen in the views of colonialists that African traditional religious practices are fetish, barbaric, ritualistic and demonic. to ' correct the erroneOUS observatiods, notions, assertions and pontifications of some foreign armchair investigators about . They provided food and traditional medicine to the fighters. <> �@x�� |S�����ag�t}��N%���8�R{����^�H�_��B�p�:���:;jn:���njp�v������t��:����i���U���L�t����(��em�F�R���^��/�&'n�+����� RELIGION is a fundamental, perhaps the most important, influence in the life of most Africans; yet its essential principles are too often unknown to foreigners who thus make themselves constantly liable to misunderstand the African worldview and beliefs. Even thoughmorality is the subject matter of ethics, it is most often usedinterchangeably with ‘ethics’. <> However, it is important to acknowledge that there is no uniform African traditional belief in the spirit world as Salala rightly points out (ibid., 134). The traditional spiritual beliefs of the Chewa people of Zambia, … traditional Shona religion, I am referring to a particular strand of Shona religiosity widely known as the Mwari religion. Traditional African approaches in the light of natural values, and of modern secular attitude If we are going to speak of traditional African concepts and customs regarding marriage and the family, a few clarifications are called for. ;�;m��έ�]����mB��"�D��T�S���U���D��[�뻨j�*�3l�� �D{��k���7��@tB����0�cg]�������Er�+�e��)džs�k��f6cƃRU�iu��,Wdm�lA���ִ��#���OLs8�1��/‰��#����q��s� �v(a���6�l�A�`O/H�vX��*���3��S����О�ME_�q����v�&oM����m?�{���{��ў��nˠ� ?a ��p ?��wUu�U���of�y ����:���ά���N�S���>~��ŏ~3���?��ӗ��˅��O��~����޸�����7��eYeß�iv�֧y��dOo�����׮��;,�����n��/�_]����ˇWC7���i�GW�C�k=L�������ܩy4�땾H�'WK���������tv^�t��U��j��B�?-�>��+Q���a���>��oeX��5x�J�]�؉6x��Ҧ���Y��LK�U���a� � <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Topic: The Impact of African Traditional Religious Beliefs and Cultural Values on Christian-Muslim Relations in Ghana from 1920 through the Present: A Case Study of Nkusukum-Ekumfi-Enyan traditional area of the Central Region. Mugambi, 1995). Furthermore, gender relations within the religious and cultural communities are a reflection of gender relations within broader society. The African traditional Here again the writer made mention of the various ceremonies which accompany puberty and its significance in African traditional religion. &R�c��Ԣ���I��X�6�Wa). %���� It is an accepted position that the African Initiated Churches (AICs) were formed as a result of the search for a unique African identity and culture. G�|�a�[q��i�`Ya�����S����uߡ���/�j�ur��ړS�l��̓���>���:=��dn�����f��sɇ�"GB~%'\����I���k����\��ӗ�d-�0ի=N�U�KY�R>�.\_��]�l7���Bfi'�IF�?���zqJ������\IµÆn ��CP]̌i��8:��L�{�����W�Y�xg]Ը���sjl�L��Ŋ��Wo>�-��'n�3��~�{Y�/ 3�;�N�S�v�؏ ��!�˲�qk��N0�����哜Ww��=��w�h���+�t��Pz�P��w�i`�����} n�O[��)�zi+Q�ΐ;��htu�N6���7C?�*Ch�Hj��b��u6�����/���7hv�f-�0z���5 ���u� As in most of sub-Saharan Africa, ATR is the indigenous religion … This left the African people with the idea that God could not handle the hostile spirits that attacked people on a daily basis. endobj 2 0 obj Mambo Hills is northeast of Bulawayo. Contemporary African culture is a mixture of traditional elements and alien features. The whole community faithfully carries out all rites and rituals connected with rites of passage such as birth, puberty, marriage, death and life after death. They counteracted various derogatory names given to AIR. He tried to demonstrate the applicability of the phenomenological method in the study of African Traditional Religion. African Traditional Religion (ATR) or African Religion in this paper gave meaning and a sense of purpose to all aspects of thought and action (cf. The Cosmos Traditional Africans believe that the cosmos was created by a Supreme Being, God. Whether Africans are part of the modern organized religion today or not, they invoke God in their everyday conversations. %PDF-1.4 Culture is part of the African indigenous Religion. The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. During these events usually an offering is made to honour, please and thank the ancestors. �æe� Là��\y�]�ھW�4��Yɨ��gՃ %�쏢 1�x�xp���~�I�٣7�m#M�Wj��xA���qN���,PT2���^��]��R�ϸ�6ക�C3����Y۪�'�K�~Bw��v������4-x������ꚦ�wE@�;5 Rosalind J. Hackett as a guest-editor has been responsible for those pages. Religion and culture as powerful institutions within society play a major role in shaping gender roles and perpetuating gender inequality and are powerful institutions within society. 1 0 obj It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on.because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. (3�z�����iw���̏�鈶�f�f���@�~n�Ή�ٴM@Tε�����ϴ[51���A�ڑG��0J�:��)_#|_�N�p���e:W��S=�{�����V8��>c���� �}�`��OzU,0�;�˹��L�1�-܂`6��T�6 �8��RЬفJ By this label serious damage was done to the gospel in Africa. These figures represent peo-ple who primarily follow African traditional religion; however, there are also Christians and Muslims who still practice elements of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. This belief, just as in the case of the previous one, has a theological basis – the plurality of divinities ( polytheism ). (1992) came very close into the substance of this paper when they came up with a book entitled African Traditional Religion in Religious Education: A Resource Book with Special Reference to Zimbabwe. ... 2 E. B. Idowu, African Traditional Religion, S.C.M., 1973, p.87. A lot of leaders have emerged from the African religion. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. differs in African countries was mentioned. For instance, the Yoruba religion has historically been centered in southwestern Nigeria, the Zulu religion in southern Africa, and the Igbo religion in southeastern Nigeria. This paper therefore, aims at exploring the role of the traditional religion in sustaining African values, human relations in particular in spite of the challenges of globalization. stream ;d�'e$I X=��2.��s�4������FEE�,�a�O��Px�_D"��{�FĤLV��p��Ȭ�0||�m�J�>Xg#�Z�0U{7k�� �D����+ApldJZpj���b�yj̓~��r� l�K��n�w�z�f�z�n�!�31���~N�^�>���@�I8O]�ɺw#H��_�U�z� r/��ڂVȤ��/$HQ�5�x{�ٶ��|�GÅ�l����b�DG8�"��M��N�2��b�>����p?�EnT��O ��s���33� �/��l�s�D��wc2�iY�pFn�>� African women were also directly and indirectly involved in the liberation war. For a more detailed treatment of this subject of God in Africa, see Mbiti 1982 and 1992. civilization in the traditional days. In spite of thephilosophical inquiries or analyses undertaken by individualmoralphilosophers regarding morality … <>>> endobj Arguably, women’s experiences of being in the world and their aspirations to transcend the world of men are reflected in the Mwari religion despite the tendency in earlier studies to deal with the religion … Nevertheless, the African traditional religion has played a remarkable role in sustaining such values but with serious challenges. For many Africans and Ghanaians, in particular, it is religion more than anything else that shapes their worldview and participation in social life6. In another chapter, puberty rites were mentioned as another rites of passage. ^xH&M'�Y۩Z7��E�D�i�%qN^Kː Local African culture was oppressed for many years by white South Africans, who find their cultural roots in … 3 0 obj �|�,utǡ��v��2Q��d�jrq�f��M7PC�)2����-|�O���7,�0�[�i=�_�a/�O�m��"Ɗ����X`��Yꟿ��2��FpX�Bj�s�FxCq�DdÐ���`��%��*Ȱ��g,-J1��eطа��*��ۃj�j�q,tm{w������>q��A�sA��qN$��D� religious situations, facts and values in Africa as a whole. This is the popular assumption amongst many African theologians of which Maluleke (1994) is one example. African Traditional Religion cannot easily be studied by non-Africans. %PDF-1.5 Indigenous African religions are by nature plural, varied, and usually informed by one’s ethnic identity i.e. Some took part as freedom fighters and gained recognition as heroines. African culture has experienced rapid change since the colonial invasion. ���u�fF'dX�eA^Ƥl4ӛa*�0(��1��l� �HLt�A�@a�2�O�>�b�O����k���)x��6*. KEY WORDS: pregnancy, birth rites, naming rites, puberty rites, ritual Religion 20 [1990] contains some articles on the study of African Religions that are worth reading. IN YORUBA TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS THOUGHT E. Dada Adelowo* Introduction This paper' is moti~ated by' the need. The major aim of this book is to present the relevance of culture to Africans in the modern era. endobj The term ‘ethics’ is technically used by philosophers tomean a philosophical study of morality—morality understood as aset of social rules, principles, norms that guide or are intended toguide the conduct of people in a society, and as beliefs about rightand wrong conduct as well as good or bad character. <> — Njelele Shrine, 35km south of Bulawayo in the Matobo Hills, is the most famous place of pilgrimage and rain dances for the traditional Mwali spirit. 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