3), mirroring the longitudinal and latitudinal results described above (likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 29.93, P = 0.005). You can find lakes on any of the world’s continents. Aggregated together, Scotland, Ireland and Wales had up to an order of magnitude more Lake Names than Name Lakes (Table 2). Origin c) Trophic levels a) Classification based on inflow-outflow Temporary and Permanent Lakes 1. Lake nomenclature in Great Britain and Ireland appears to be related to the etymology of the predominant languages spoken, despite the linguistic dilution that likely occurred through trade and invasions by other linguistic groups, including the Vikings, Romans, Saxons and Normans. As such, the Laurentian Great Lakes (Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, Ontario and Superior) serve as classic examples, although they were not included in our analyses. It eases errors corrections in a data analytics process from origin to destination. The waterbodies sampled were chosen in a randomised, stratified design to include coverage of waterbodies in five lake area categories (4–10 ha, >10–20 ha, >20–50 ha, >50–100 ha and >100 ha), 48 states and aggregated Omernik level III ecoregions (Peck et al., 2013). Similarly, the differences in lake density among states may have influenced the interpretation of their nomenclature (e.g., Connecticut), but likely still provide insight to general lake naming patterns across the U.S.A. We focused here on generalised patterns across the continental U.S.A. because each lake has a unique history and naming story, which likely influenced its nomenclature. The patterns in English lake names remained to be verified, but as we listed the English lakes we knew, they mostly seemed to use Name Lake (including Windermere, for which ‘mere’ means inland sea, derived from the French ‘mer’). We examined the potential drivers of lake naming patterns using the U.S. EPA National Lakes Assessment database of. The first element in a lake's origin is an environmental force and is the facet of its natural history most commonly used by scientists to guide the general classification of lake basins. The Laurentian Great Lakes were excluded, and there were no consistently available accompanying data in any of these lists on lake morphometry or geographical coordinates. There are several type, kinds and categories of lakes in the world. A lake is a body of water of considerable size, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land apart from a river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lake area was a significant predictor of a lake's name: as lakes increased in size, the likelihood of being called Lake Name significantly increased (predicted logit = −1.55(±0.10) + 0.29(±0.05) × ln (lake area); Χ2 = 43.06, P < 0.0001; Fig. This appears to be partially related to lake size in these regions, as in the U.S.A., but also to the use of Lake Name in Gaelic and their related European languages. 1966 The first vintage, truly hand (and feet) made. Finally, we thank two anonymous reviewers and Alan Steinman for useful comments on an earlier version of this article. Tadalafil tablets 20 mg spc. Regardless of lake origin, we observed the same significant relationship between lake area and lake nomenclature. Further investigation revealed that in the French and Spanish languages, the only limnological nomenclature possible is Lake Name (Lac Nom or Lago Nombre, respectively). 2b), contrary to our expectations, although Name Lakes were more common overall. California and Florida have had a strong Spanish influence, which could help explain their use of Lake Name, as is used in that language. We developed a series of hypotheses that could be narrowed down to one overarching one: nomenclature of U.S. lakes reflects an interaction of settlement history and origin and lake size. Differences in state sizes and number of lakes per state likely account for some this variation. To test our hypothesis on settlement origin in North America, we also examined a list of 1722 Canadian lakes obtained from Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_lakes_of_Canada) using click‐throughs to provincial sites (accessed 13 September 2015). Lakes Portal data, as well as the U.S. EPA for their NLA data and Wikipedia. That Which We Call a Lake by Any Other Name, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_loughs_of_Ireland, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_lakes_of_Canada. Our analysis suggests that colonisation influence based on the historical immigration patterns of different linguistic groups likely played a role in lake naming patterns, which is a similar finding to what was observed in a study of the nomenclature of Midwestern U.S. streams (Raup, 1957). We had to exclude 61 of these lakes because no names were listed, or only a proper name was listed without specifying the order of ‘lake’ and the name of waterbody. Whether a lake is small, big or v ery large. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. 1) to assess whether there were regional differences in lake nomenclature. Lake Classification A lake’s ability to support plant and animal life defines its level of productivity, or trophic state. North American lakes in the U.S.A. (and Canada) do not have the naming consistency of lakes in England, Spain, France or Germany because of the mixed influence of these various countries with different conventions. Salt LakesSalt Lake is an inland … 1964 A-frame erected, later to become the vineyard logo. d) Nature of Inflow-outflow. English descends most directly from the Britton Celts, and this group appears to use Name Lake nomenclature almost exclusively. 4), with highly significant differences in lake nomenclature (likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 117.75, P < 0.0001). Our primary driver variables were lake surface area, maximum depth, latitude, and longitude; lake surface area and maximum depth were ln‐transformed to meet assumptions of normality and equal variance. 15 The simplest classification is the dimension of a lake. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, The Best and Worst Country in the World: Perspectives on the Early Virginia Landscape, Applications of the NHD at the U.S. environmental protection agency, The global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments, Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History, Vol. We are grateful to J.P. Doubek for his assistance in preparing the GIS map, and we thank the Starbucks on the corner of St. Denis and Ontario Streets in Montréal for providing the caffeine that fuelled our initial conversation about the intriguing case of lake nomenclature. The total number of lakes, full ecoregion names and their locations are shown in Fig. Many a discussion among limnologists or with a member of the general public has at some point turned to the subject of why the names of some lakes in North America start with Lake, followed by their name (i.e., Lake Name), such as Lake Sunapee, while many others are reversed (i.e., Name Lake), such as Trout Lake. Next in line are Recreational Development lakes such as Chippewa and Lobster. If you are uncertain about the classification of a lake or river and the dimensional standards that apply, contact your local planning and zoning office. Classification suggests that Louisiana, which was settled as a colony of France in the late 1600s before being ceded to Spain in 1763, is unsurprisingly also one of the heaviest users of Lake Name. Why several parts of the Eastern seaboard – in particular, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and Connecticut, as well as scattered states in the central U.S.A. – use Lake Name is less immediately clear. In addition to the continental analyses, we compared the prevalence of Lake Names versus Name Lakes among Level III EPA ecoregions and states (Fig. These latitudinal and longitudinal relationships remained significant even after the effects of lake surface area were controlled for in multiple logistic regression models that included both predictors. When ice sheets moved over flat rock surface with weakened areas of fissures, the rock could splinter and loosen to form the basin of “glac… In contrast, Lake Name dominates 80% of lakes in Wales, where the Celtic form of ‘Llyn’ as lake is most commonly used. States where more than 50% of all waterbodies had a Lake Name were Maryland, Virginia and Florida, with California and Connecticut exhibiting an even divide in their Lake Name versus Name Lake waterbodies. Our examination of lake nomenclature across the continental U.S.A. generally supported our hypotheses. Wular lake (Jammu & Kashmir) is the largest freshwater lake in India. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: What Is in a “Lake” Name? Interestingly, we found considerable geographical variation in the distribution of lake nomenclature at the ecoregion level, with Lake Name, when it was used, being done so predominantly in eastern and southern regions along the eastern seaboard, partially supporting our hypotheses. Resource classification is one of the basic tools used by resource managers. Whether a lake is small, big or very large. In particular, 100% of the lakes in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain were called Lake Names (Fig. Buy tadalafil in australia. 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