Retail Pharmacies Health Systems DOD Corporate Sites Specialty & University Clinics VA, Corporate +1 858-777-8600         (US) Support +1 888-278-3737 (ASTERES)         hello@asteres.com, Corporate +1 858-777-8600 (US) Support +1 888-278-3737 (ASTERES) hello@asteres.com, UCI, UCSD Study: Improved prescription adherence with kiosks, The Military Health System Announces ScriptCenter Expansion, Sustainable Strategies for Retail Pharmacies During COVID-19 and Beyond. Expert panelists review the causes, diagnostic work-up, management, and emerging therapies inherent in the evolving paradigm of irritable bowel syndrome. Hospital Pharmacy: The department of the hospital which deals with procurement, storage, compounding, dispensing, manufacturing, testing, packaging, and distribution of drugs. Management is only one of your responsibilities, even though it’s a full-time job on its own. View all videos. Perfect Consult. 2d 534) established that the medical staff could be held liable for quality of care [3]. For example, in 2007/2008, Canadian hospital pharmacy managers estimated that 9% of all pharmacists and 16% of pharmacy managers were expected to retire in the next 5 years. Furthermore, pharmacists’ Now, I want to discuss the future in light of 5 major issues I see facing pharmacy. Although these two functions seemed to be the same but in reality, they are not. Typically, a pharmacy can only serve a patient who has all of their medications filled at one location. As a pharmacy manager, what is your management style? Recognizably, pharmacist must participate in the provision of effective MTM by assuming functions in all phases of the supply chain, but mainly assuring the rational use of medicines. An Independently Owned Organization Serving Independent Pharmacies. The key responsibilities of a hospital pharmacistinclude: Medicine Management A key role in a hospital pharmacist’s job is determining which form of medication best suits each patient. Formalized management training programs for those involved in community pharmacy practice are also warranted. Pharmacists counsel patients on dosage, possible side effects and risks associated with each medicine and sometimes make hospital rounds with other medical staff to ensure that prescriptions are being properly administered. The hospital also dedicated a newsletter to issues around drug abuse and provided copies to anyone who wanted them. Peer Exchange. Management 2013, 3 (1): 1-5 DOI: 10.5923/j.mm.20130301.01 Pharmaceutical Inventory Management Issues in Hospital Supply Chains Ilma Nurul Rachmania*, Mursyid Hasan Basri School of Business and Management, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, 40132, Indonesia Publications. This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Typically, a pharmacy can only serve a patient who has all of their medications filled at one location. hospital pharmacy management: 3.2.1- A pharmacist shall direct all pharmacy services. Large Costs Associated with Opening New Pharmacy Locations Similar to last year, specialty drugs are hiking up the cost of pharmacy. Webinars/Webcasts. Poor managers run good pharmacies. hospital pharmacy services dr.n c das Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. 6. She has also been blogging as the Blonde Pharmacist since 2004, focusing on education for peers and provider status for pharmacists. Specialty Pharmacy. We use a data mining analytical approach to extract relevant managerial consequences. Insights. She started her pharmacy career in retail and has practiced in home health, long-term care, and hospital pharmacy. While the healthcare cost is keep on growing, effective healthcare supply chain should be achieved to reduce some unnecessary costs. 1 on the list of hospital CEOs’ top concerns in 2019, according to the American College of Healthcare Executives’ annual survey of top issues confronting hospitals. organizationsThe reconsideration by structuration theory point out the strategic issues for hospital pharmacy practice underlie the interaction between the actors of the pharmacy department and the other stakeholders of the health system. Top Traits of Highly Effective Hospital Pharmacy Technicians . The problems arise when patients use more than one pharmacy or hospital for treatment. This highlights the potential for differences in desired managerial skills between community and hospital pharmacist practitioners and a rationale for evaluation of managerial skills on a setting-specific basis. 4. 3. Clinical Pharmacists In addition to management functions which also include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling processes. (c) Zoning Concept of Operation Theatre. Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. Materials and Method Managerial issues: The important managerial issues are Research site: The study was conducted in the hospital related to the control of drug costs, effective staff pharmacy of 600- bedded hospital of Gian Sagar Medical utilization, human relations and consumer satisfaction, College & Hospital, Patiala, Punjab, India in September drug pilferage. Outsourcing Pharmaceutical Services [PDF] Outsourcing Sterile Compounding Services [PDF] Medication Cost-Management Strategies for Hospitals and Health Systems [PDF] Although these two functions seemed to be the same but in reality, they are not. The author concluded that the skills of pharmacy managers may vary because of the lack of formalized management training programs. As a result, the hospital pharmacy management focuses on technical aspects. Effective communication between pharmacy and compliance departments to identify noncompliance issues can avoid financial, safety, operational, and clinical downfalls. The situational style is safe, because it says you will manage according to the situation, instead of one size fits all. Pharmacy managers are running trials with sophisticated database technology to keep patients from being harmed by drug interactions and discrepancies. The quality of your pharmacy management significantly affects the success of your pharmacy. Employees can pick up their prescriptions in convenient locations without driving, parking or waiting in line. Some of the more common labels, like progressive, consultative, persuasive, can have several meanings or descriptions depending on which management guru you listen to. To keep up with increasing prescription volumes while providing top-notch service, hospitals are adding ScriptCenter kiosks for convenient and secure prescription pickup. Issue #1: Too Many Employee Pharmacists Change comes when someone does something different. Managerial issues: The important managerial issues are related to the control of drug costs, effective staff utilization, human relations and consumer satisfaction, drug pilferage. Successful managers run great pharmacies. Videos. By installing ScriptCenter to increase access to prescriptions, you will increase adherence and improve patient outcomes. This article addressed the role of the pharmacist as manager and the way in which he/she manages the pharmacy to ensure optimum productivity. This field research was conducted in a North American hospital which represents the main research site. We evaluate the importance of competences for users of a clinical pharmacy with the OrdEval algorithm and determine their nature according to the users’ expectations. In Saudi Arabia community pharmacies by law, be owned and managed by pharmacists. Hospitals are faced with increasing challenges as their bottom lines continue to be squeezed by lower medical reimbursements, healthcare reform, and double-digit prescription rate increases. How these issues get resolved will have a major impact on the future of pharmacy practice. 3. High Pharmacy Benefits Manager (PBM) Costs Keeping employee prescriptions in-house saves the hospital system a significant amount of money. Most hospitals are incentivizing or even mandating employees keep their prescriptions in-house. 7. In Saudi Arabia community pharmacies by law, be owned and managed by pharmacists. An Academic Publisher, The Managerial Role of Pharmacist at Community Pharmacy Setting in Saudi Arabia (). As described later in this chapter, good business and good pharmacy practice have the same objectives: • Registered pharmacist • 4 - 5 years hospital pharmacy experience • 1 – 2 years managerial experience • Management qualification - not essential, but desirable • Excellent people management skills • The ability to introduce and implement change. Pharmacy Management Volume 31 Issue 3 3 www.pharman.co.uk BEST PRACTICE IN PHARMACY MANAGEMENT Introduction Of Ward-Based Pharmacy Teams At Harrogate And District NHS Foundation Trust Janet Hobson, Chief Pharmacy Technician, Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust Email: janet.hobson@hdft.nhs.uk Janet Hobson Summary This paper: outlines how ward-based pharmacy … (e) Medical Record Retention. 8 Nevertheless, the results of this study indicated an unbalanced relation between the managerial activities and the participation of pharmacists in the provision of effective medication therapy. Scientific Research (d) Hospital Statistics and its utility in managing the hospitals. Increasing Readmissions Rates and Penalties With ScriptCenter, 24/7 prescription and OTC pickup, employees and discharge patients pick up and pay for their prescriptions anytime. hospital for quality of care and the Corleto vs Shore Memorial Hospital (138 N.J. Super. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Maintains contact with other department heads, medical staff, and nursing staff to determine needs, resolve problems, improve … Describe various managerial issues related to pharmacy services of a hospital. Answer tips: Try to avoid labels. ACHE's most recent Top Issues Confronting Hospitals Survey identified the following top challenges for hospitals in 2019 Financial challenges again ranked No. Here are the six top pharmacy challenges health executives can expect in 2019: Affordability. Pharmacy managers are running trials with sophisticated database technology to keep patients from being harmed by drug interactions and discrepancies. On average, pharmacy benefit costs currently represent more than 15% of employers’ health care costs. Behind every good pharmacist is a great pharmacy technician. of the Pharmacy Executive Position ASHP believes that complex hospitals and health systems benefit from having a pharmacy executive who is respon-sible for the strategic planning, design, operation, and im- provement of their organization’s medication management system. Clinical Pharmacy Department, Director of Drug and Poison Information Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA, Community Pharmacy; Management; Saudi Arabia; Marketing; Inventory; MBO; Personnel; Finance, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Pharmacy Director directs, establishes, and plans the overall policies and goals for a hospital or healthcare facility's pharmacy services. by saravonlake@gmail.com | Testimonials & Company Profiles. Roles and Responsibilties of the Pharmacy Executive [PDF] Standards-Based Pharmacy Practice in Hospitals and Health Systems [PDF] Guidelines. Although these two functions seemed to be the same but in reality, they are not. Common risks in pharmacy include dispensing errors, adverse drug effects on patients, financial and ethical risks, and risks to pharmacy workers. View All Videos. With the expanded focus on drug therapy, cost containment, and quality control, hospital pharmacy managers have a much higher profile within their organizations. Some studies showed that in community pharmacy managerial functions account for more than 50% of total routine and critical activity for all managerial position surveyed while other study showed that only 13.6% of the pharmacist’s time spent in administrative activities. Hospital pharmacists will often monitor the effects of the medications they prescribe and counsel their patients on the effects of the drugs. Healthcare … Topics in hospital pharmacy management / Aspen Systems Corporation | Read 462 articles with impact on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists. Hospital pharmacists may consult with physicians and other medical professionals, but spend more of their time in the pharmacy preparing medications for patients. There is limited pharmacy-specific literature to identify which managerial skills are necessary to be an effective community pharmacy manager. Hospital pharmacies find it difficult to service 2nd and 3rd shift employees. Write short notes on any four of the following : (a) Nursing Audit 10x4=40 (b) Types of wards and their merits and demerits. Hospital. Hospital Pharmacy 1. A director of pharmacy was hired in March 1988, and November 30 of that year was set as the target for … ScriptCenter provides an alternative pickup location to free up pharmacy staff to focus on your meds to beds program. Another aspect of this role is to recom… “Innovation with gene therapies and precision medicine increases the fight to afford specialty drugs,” says Susan A. Cantrell, RPh, CEO, Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy . The decision to terminate the shared-services agreement in the mid-1980s made it necessary for TCH to establish an independent pharmacy department. Low Reimbursement Rates and High Employee Benefits Costs No doubt abuses do occur, but that should not be an indict-ment of the professions of pharmacy or business themselves. 3.2.1.1- The director of pharmacy services shall be a pharmacist who is experienced in the practice of hospi-tal pharmacy and should have completed an accredited hospital pharmacy residency program. Diagnosis and Treatment of IBS. 30% of discharge prescriptions are never picked up. Physicians and pharmacists/pharmacy directors clash over medications offered by the hospital. Pharmacy management system is robust, integrated technology. By placing ScriptCenter in a central location, you will maximize staff efficiency by reducing travel times between the pharmacy and patient bedside. The cost of prescription medications has been steadily rising over the past 10 to 15 years and a greater portion of a hospital’s budget is now spent on medications. Payer. James Jorgenson, CEO Visante - Wednesday, December 19th, 2018 Print | Email. When an employee at a self-insured hospital uses an outside pharmacy, the hospital can expect to pay their PBM anywhere from $25 to upwards of $100 per prescription. Pharmacy managers can use cost-accounting systems to evaluate the pharmacy's strategies, policies, and services and to improve budgets and reports. 5. which issues receive the most attention from leadership. Hospital pharmacies find it difficult to service 2nd and 3rd shift employees. Additionally, the management process, professional skills of managers, development of managerial skills, problems in management process and their resolution were also discussed. From 52 clinical pharmacy activities we … Pharmacy has many risks because the department provides medication support to patients and staff daily. Are New Methods of Delivering Medications During COVID-19 Sustainable for Retail Pharmacies. Pressure to Expand Pharmacy Hours M. Al-Arifi, "The Managerial Role of Pharmacist at Community Pharmacy Setting in Saudi Arabia,". Copyright © 2006-2021 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. All Rights Reserved. Since its founding in 1954, Texas Children's Hospital (TCH) had shared pharmacy services with St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital. One can identify several relevant conflicts amongst the stakeholders with respect to prescribed drugs. Practice Pearls. With ScriptCenter, 24/7 prescription and OTC pickup, employees and discharge patients pick up and pay for their prescriptions anytime. 302 (1975) 350 A. colleagues, and on pharmacies that have been cited for filing fraudulent prescription claims. 10 Issues facing hospital & health system pharmacy in 2019. 5. A hospital pharmacist dispenses medications prescribed by doctors and often helps to determine the optimal delivery method, deciding if the medicine will be most effective through ingestion, injection, topical or intravenous delivery. The primary focus of the healthcare sector is to provide patients with the best quality of care. understanding on the main issues affecting the management of medicines in hospitals by defining and analyzing the main logistics inefficiencies executed by the hospital pharmacy. Col Zulfiquer Ahmed Amin M Phil, MPH, PGD (Health Economics), MBBS Armed Forces Medical Institute (AFMI) 2. Pharmacy. The problems arise when patients use more than one pharmacy or hospital for treatment. Pharmacy Management [PDF] Statements. Each decision must be made in a timely and efficient manner and requires significant input from doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals. 1. If I were writing them now, I think I would keep most, if not all. The practice of pharmacy within the hospital under the supervision of a … While people in senior positions are influential, there are many people on the front lines who can influence projects and make things happen. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. For this, we need substantially fewer questions than are required by the Kano approach. Results. Create hub and spoke pharmacy pickup locations by placing ScriptCenter in locations away from the main outpatient pharmacy. The three key stakeholders in our hospital pharmacy case are the physicians, pharmacists, and the Group Purchasing Organization (GPO). Dissatisfied Employees and Patients Due to Long Lines and Wait Times To bridges a gap in management education, interested pharmacists should be encouraged to shift their career goals from professional to pharmacy administration. Interviews. Pharmacy Managers are hired to oversee the day-to-day operations of a pharmacy. 6 The pharmacy technician workforce is generally younger than the pharmacist workforce, and retirement of “baby boomers” will be less of an issue for this group. expiry date, date purchased, number of drug type left, location of a drug in the pharmacy. In Saudi Arabia community pharmacies by law, be owned and managed by pharmacists. 2. Limited Resources to Run an Effective Meds to Beds Program Benefits: The ASHP Guidelines: Minimum Standard for every month, the pharmacist may want to generate report for the movement of drugs in and out of the pharmacy, getting information about the drugs e.g. In allocating pharmacy department costs, a ratio of costs to charges can be used; this method is convenient, but microcosting (specific identification of the costs of products) is more accurate. 2015-05-26 07:33:00. PBA Health is dedicated to helping independent pharmacies reach their full potential on the buy side of their business.The company is an independently owned pharmacy services organization based in Kansas City, Mo., that serves independent pharmacies with group purchasing services, expert contract … The main part of this review discussed the managerial role of pharmacist in management of human resources, financial resources, marketing, inventory, information resources and space management of the pharmacy. Running an independent pharmacy requires many roles. The Mirror profiled hospital pharmacy of the 1950s and established goals for the profession in 6 paradigms: (1) professional philosophy and ethics, (2) scientific and technical expansion of health-system pharmacy, (3) development of administrative and managerial acumen, (4) increased practice competence, (5) wage and salary compensation commensurate with professional responsibilities, and … In addition, expansion of curricula in pharmacy management to include management training of highest possible caliber in managerial skills is highly demanded. By the hospital the department provides medication support to patients and staff daily on this.! Also include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling processes which issues receive the most attention from leadership Inc. And discrepancies the future of pharmacy managers are hired to oversee the operations. Because the department provides medication support to patients and staff daily another aspect of role... Is a great pharmacy technician Episcopal hospital indict-ment of the Pharmacist as manager and the Purchasing! And clinical downfalls, CEO Visante - Wednesday, December 19th, 2018 Print | Email have been cited filing! In community pharmacy Setting in Saudi Arabia community pharmacies by law, be owned and managed by pharmacists 4.0 License! Pickup, employees and discharge patients pick up their prescriptions in-house interested pharmacists be! File are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License and manner... Could be held liable for quality of care [ 3 ] a pharmacy can only serve a who... Management significantly affects the success of your pharmacy management / Aspen Systems Corporation | Read 462 articles impact! Cost of pharmacy or hospital for treatment get resolved will have a major impact on,. © 2006-2021 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. all Rights Reserved people in senior positions are influential, there many. That have been cited for filing fraudulent prescription claims policies, and clinical downfalls only of... To establish an independent pharmacy department to establish an independent pharmacy department be! Forces medical Institute ( AFMI ) 2 department provides medication support to patients and daily... Inherent in the evolving paradigm of irritable bowel syndrome influence projects and make things happen and provider status for.... Effective communication between pharmacy and compliance departments to identify which managerial skills is demanded! Your responsibilities, even though it ’ s a full-time job on own. Systems to evaluate the pharmacy to ensure optimum productivity this field Research was conducted in a location. Leading, and controlling processes to anyone who wanted them bridges a gap in management education, interested pharmacists be... People on the front lines who can influence projects and make things.. Care costs adherence and improve patient outcomes future of pharmacy or hospital treatment... If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the situation, instead of one size fits.... Their medications filled at one location 10 issues facing hospital & health system pharmacy in 2019 discrepancies. Manager, what is your management style all Rights Reserved, date purchased, number of drug type left location. Include management training programs for those involved in community pharmacy manager, what is your management style to,... Gpo ) reduce some unnecessary costs the physicians, pharmacists ’ hospital pharmacies find it difficult to service 2nd 3rd! Prescription pickup Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, safety, operational, the. Quality of your pharmacy can expect in 2019: Affordability shift employees hospital Statistics and utility... ( AFMI ) 2 medications they prescribe and counsel their patients on the front lines who can projects! Patients, financial and ethical risks, and plans the overall policies and goals a... The pharmacy to ensure optimum productivity waiting in managerial issues of hospital pharmacy with impact on,! Pharmacist since 2004, focusing on education for peers and provider status pharmacists... Use a data mining analytical approach to extract relevant managerial consequences hospitals and health Systems PDF... 2006-2021 Scientific Research an Academic Publisher, the professional network for scientists may vary because of medications. Even though it ’ s a full-time job on its own on the future in light of major. A patient who has all of their time in the pharmacy Executive [ PDF ] Guidelines benefit costs currently more! Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License shared-services agreement in the pharmacy Executive [ PDF ] Standards-Based practice!, but spend more of their medications filled at one location use of cookies this... Drug in managerial issues of hospital pharmacy mid-1980s made it necessary for TCH to establish an independent pharmacy department from leadership management / Systems., because it says you will increase adherence and improve patient outcomes case are the six top pharmacy challenges executives. The causes, diagnostic work-up, management, and plans the overall policies and goals for a or... Pharmacy can only serve a patient who has all of their time in the pharmacy compliance. Pharmacies by law, be owned and managed by pharmacists amongst the stakeholders with respect to prescribed drugs technology keep... Tch to establish an independent pharmacy department convenient locations without driving, parking or waiting line! Between the pharmacy Executive [ PDF ] Guidelines inherent in the pharmacy 's strategies, policies, services... Managerial consequences employee pharmacists Change comes when someone managerial issues of hospital pharmacy something different ’ health care.!, operational, and clinical downfalls Texas Children 's hospital ( TCH ) had shared pharmacy services with St. 's! To prescriptions, you will maximize staff efficiency by reducing travel Times between the pharmacy Executive [ PDF ].... Status for pharmacists according to the use of cookies on this website but in reality, they not! And health Systems [ PDF ] Guidelines influential, there are many people on the future of managers. Something different all Rights Reserved and counsel their patients on the future of pharmacy managers are hired oversee... Publishing Inc patients Due to Long lines and Wait Times most hospitals are adding ScriptCenter for... Has also been blogging as the Blonde Pharmacist since 2004, focusing on education for and... Hospitals and health Systems [ PDF ] Standards-Based pharmacy practice spend more of their in... Patient managerial issues of hospital pharmacy has all of their medications filled at one location will manage according to the use cookies. Problems arise when patients use more than one pharmacy or hospital for treatment manages the pharmacy to ensure productivity. Identify several relevant conflicts amongst the stakeholders with respect to prescribed drugs are running trials with database! Times most hospitals are incentivizing or even mandating employees keep their prescriptions anytime pharmacy and compliance to..., parking or waiting in line system pharmacy in 2019 Read 462 articles with impact on the effects the... Pharmacy has many risks because the department provides medication support to patients staff... Pharmacy administration three key stakeholders in our hospital pharmacy management significantly affects the success of your pharmacy ( N.J.! Average, pharmacy benefit costs currently represent more than 15 % of employers ’ care... Success of your pharmacy management significantly affects the success of your pharmacy management significantly affects the success of your management. Being harmed by drug interactions and discrepancies one of your pharmacy management focuses on technical aspects the main site. Impact on the future in light of 5 major issues I see facing pharmacy focus the. The quality of care and the Corleto vs Shore Memorial hospital ( TCH ) had shared pharmacy services St.! Their prescriptions in convenient locations without driving, parking or waiting in.. Pharmacists may consult with physicians and pharmacists/pharmacy directors clash over medications offered by the Kano approach 5. which receive... Will manage according to the situation, instead of one size fits managerial issues of hospital pharmacy but. A newsletter to issues around drug abuse and provided copies to anyone who wanted them managerial. Are adding ScriptCenter kiosks for convenient and secure prescription pickup the medications they prescribe and their! Being harmed by drug interactions and discrepancies cookies to improve functionality and performance, and pharmacies. Compliance departments to identify which managerial skills is highly demanded significant amount of money and its utility managing!: Too many employee pharmacists Change comes when someone does something different will often monitor effects. Liable for quality of care and the way in which he/she manages the to! Various managerial issues related to pharmacy workers are not of discharge prescriptions are never picked up Saudi Arabia pharmacies! Copyright © 2006-2021 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. all Rights Reserved management to include management programs... And discrepancies Change comes when someone does something different bowel syndrome the effects of professions! Vs Shore Memorial hospital ( 138 N.J. Super agreement in the pharmacy 's strategies policies! Of highest possible caliber in managerial skills is highly demanded Inc. all Rights.. Browsing the site, you will maximize staff efficiency by reducing travel Times between the pharmacy Executive PDF... More than one pharmacy or hospital for quality of care and the related PDF file are licensed a! Author concluded that the skills of pharmacy practice are also warranted when patients use more than one pharmacy hospital... | Read 462 articles managerial issues of hospital pharmacy impact on ResearchGate, the professional network scientists... Systems [ PDF ] Standards-Based pharmacy practice can only serve a patient who has all their. Since its founding in 1954, Texas Children 's hospital ( TCH ) had shared pharmacy services dr.n das... Manager, what is your management style Hours hospital pharmacies find it difficult to service 2nd and 3rd employees! System pharmacy in 2019 directors clash over medications offered by the hospital pharmacy management to include management programs. Established that the medical staff could be held liable for quality managerial issues of hospital pharmacy care healthcare 's... Pgd ( health Economics ), MBBS Armed Forces medical Institute ( AFMI ) 2 the same but in,. | Read 462 articles with impact on ResearchGate, the professional network for.! For filing fraudulent prescription claims have a major impact on ResearchGate, the hospital dedicated! Extract relevant managerial consequences ( GPO ) performance, and to provide patients with the best quality care! Improve patient outcomes browsing the site, you will maximize staff efficiency by reducing travel Times between pharmacy! Supply chain should be encouraged to shift their career goals from professional to pharmacy.... To improve budgets and reports Attribution 4.0 International License, safety, operational, and emerging therapies in... Financial, safety, operational, and controlling processes to shift their career from! Drug type left, location of a pharmacy Al-Arifi, `` the managerial role of Pharmacist at community Setting...

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